Larry Harnisch reflects on Los Angeles history
hile the rest of the news business spends the final days of December looking back at the major events of the year, the Daily Mirror is peering forward, and for us at least, the future is clear: 1961 brings the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs invasion. “The Apartment” will win the Academy Award as best picture. Gary Cooper will die of cancer and Ernest Hemingway will kill himself.
What else can we see? 1921 is the year of the Fatty Arbuckle case and 1941 brings us the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entry into World War II. And in 1981, we have the dawn of the Ronald Reagan era.As I often say, “so many stories and only one Larry Harnisch.” Where shall we go and what shall we do in the coming year?
Mystery photos? Of course, they’re one of my favorite parts of the blog. Paul Coates and Matt Weinstock? Yes. And Tom Treanor. I’ll try to do more with some other Times columnists who have only appeared fleetingly in the Daily Mirror: Lee Shippey and Timothy Turner, for example. And perhaps the mysterious 1930s film columnist Tip-Off.
The Daily Mirror has evolved quite a bit since I began the blog nearly four years ago. There’s more on Hollywood and film, and a bit less on crime. Part of the reason is my need for variety and part of the reason is what I find – or don’t find -- in the old papers. The crimes of the 1950s are fascinating and 1957 was a great year, but by mid- to late 1959, The Times’ coverage seemed to shift away from detailed reporting on the police blotter, a trend that continued into 1960. Perhaps the crimes weren’t as interesting to The Times editors as they were in the 1940s and early '50s, or The Times was devoting more of its resources to subjects like politics.
One thing I hope to explore in the coming year is a theme I touched on in a series of posts I called “Another Good Story Ruined.” Why is Los Angeles history so hard to get right and so easy to get wrong? I sometimes think the books on Los Angeles are nothing but a catalog of errors. It might be worthwhile to examine some of the more common mistakes and myths about our past and see if I can find the origins. Authors of books about Los Angeles can expect the Daily Mirror to do a bit random fact-checking, which should fun and, I hope, illuminating.
I do need to pick my shots carefully. Extended coverage like Nikita Khrushchev’s visit to Los Angeles or the 1960 Democratic National Convention is labor-intensive and such projects seem to hold little interest for Daily Mirror readers. I’m not sure why, as they are significant events in local history, but they tend to be a lot of work for very little return.
And now it’s request time.
Daily Mirror readers are a loyal bunch. In fact, statistics show they spend an amazing amount of time on the blog. What would you like to see in the year ahead?
ps. Only four years to the Watts Riots.
|Los Angeles Times Interview
Capturing the Essence of California Architecture
October 9, 1994
By Steve Proffitt, Steve Proffitt is a producer for Fox News and a contributor to National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" and "Morning Edition." He spoke with Julius Shulman at the photographer's home in the Hollywood Hills
In 1960, Julius Shulman took a photograph that, perhaps more than any other single image, conveys the style, grace and allure of postwar Los Angeles. Inside a steel-topped glass box balanced lightly on a hilltop, two young women in white cotton chat, while the City of Angels sparkles below. It is a picture both nostalgic and modern, the work of a self-taught photographer who truly invented himself.
In 1936, Shulman used a vest-pocket Kodak to snap a shot of a Hollywood home designed by architect Richard Neutra. A brash 26-year-old, he showed the picture to Neutra, and a career was born. Neutra hired him to photograph some of his other projects, and introduced the young photographer to such other leading West Coast architects as R.M. Schindler, Raphael Soriano and Gregory Ain. Shulman's dramatic prints played an important role in establishing an international reputation for these and other Southern California architects, especially during the '50s, a period many consider the golden age of Modernism. More than any architect of that era, he created a public image of the California style of design.
Perhaps because he never had formal training, Shulman worked intuitively, eschewing light meters and fancy light-reflecting umbrellas, and relying on nature. Yet, he was a master manipulator, often working at twilight, creating long exposures, opening and closing the lens, while turning lights on and off, to create texture and contrast. His clients often expressed surprise when seeing his images, for Shulman created a vision even they, as the creating architects, had never seen.
Shulman, who turns 84 tomorrow, lives with his wife, Olga, in a steel-frame house designed, in 1949, for them by Soriano. Long walls of glass contrast with corrugated sheet-steel siding. The house is hidden within two heavily wooded acres in the Hollywood Hills.
In 1986, Shulman announced his retirement, in part as a way of expressing his distaste for post-modernist design. But the lure of the lens was too strong, and now, back at work, he's busier than ever. A retrospective of his early photographs is currently on view at the Craig Krull gallery in Santa Monica, and a biography, "A Constructed View: The Architectural Photographs of Julius Shulman," by Joseph Rosa, has been published by Rizzoli. Inside his studio-office, Shulman shows off prints and publications, bouncing around the room with the energy of a teen-ager, promising not to retire until he hits 120.
Question: What were the elements that came together to make the 1950s so robust in terms of architecture in the Los Angeles area?
Answer: I'd say, first, the economy. The '50s were glorious years . . . . The population was booming--people were coming to Los Angeles from all over the world. And architects were given free rein. They were allowed to experiment, not in the way that is being done today--these horrible monstrosities being made in the name of post-modernism--but with integrity. The architects of this period, people like Richard Neutra, Pierre Koenig, Gregory Ain--they respected the client. Every line they drew was drawn with the client in mind.
Those were the great years and the result was that, throughout the world, there was a recognition of these architects' work. I was lucky to be doing the right thing at the right place at the right time. So anytime, anybody wanted a photograph of a modern house, Uncle Julius provided the picture.
Q: Can you describe the essence of the design philosophy of these '50s Californian architects?
A: I have to backtrack a little to answer that. In the 1930s, it was the heyday of what we call the International style. Architects like Richard Neutra, Raphael Soriano--these men were following a very austere, Bauhaus kind of practice. The result was that many architects who followed people like Neutra began to edit that style of architecture, by doing things like literally raising the roof. They said, "We don't have to have just a box, let's add a little character to the design."
And that was one of the things that happened during the '50s, and right up to the '60s. Soriano, for example, who did my house, used an all-steel framework. During the earthquake--it was a shattering, powerful quake--we had not a crack. I am indebted to Soriano for his discipline in using those steel frames. The earthquake has proven this type of architecture is completely successful.
Yet, Soriano didn't have a client for 25 years. The public didn't recognize his work; they didn't buy it. But other architects modified the austerity, began to create more space with higher ceilings, sloping roof lines, and created some character.
Q: So would you say that, in the 1950s, California architects held on to the framework of the Bauhaus, and humanized it?
A: Yes. The dominant feature of contemporary architecture in the '50s was glass. My house has two window walls, which are 30 feet long. That's great for us, because we are on a large piece of property, surrounded by a jungle. But, as my wife has always said, put this house on a 50-foot lot on a city street, and it would be a disaster.
Soriano once built a house in Long Beach on a normal, city-street lot. The bathroom faced the street, and he walled it with obscure glass--textured glass. He told the owner she didn't need draperies because of the obscure glass.
She moved in, had a open house to meet her neighbors, and one of them said to her, "I hope we can be friendly and tell you this. We admire your figure when you take a shower." The obscure glass provided a perfect view of her silhouette. The next day she got draperies.
So the architects who came down the line refined the architecture. They designed with less glass, more solid walls, more space. And the result was an architecture that became popular throughout the world. You could almost say it was an evolution in design, to fit the needs of more and more people.
Q: What happened in the '60s and '70s? Why did modernism in architecture fall into disfavor and disuse?
A: One of the reasons was that the public-at-large still didn't buy the work of contemporary architects. And by the '70s, a new breed of architect came on the scene--represented by men like Frank Gehry and Michael Graves and even Charles Moore--who introduced a sloping, high-cathedral-ceiling kind of design. People began to say, "Hey, this is good," because these designs didn't have the walls of glass like the '40s and '50s designs did. The result was that they began to accept what I call "weird architecture."
And, right now, we are in still another transition. Even architects like Gehry are beginning to reform their designs. He admits that he is an experimenter, and his work is often not well-received by the public. Nowadays, the elite--the people who can afford it--they want something "different." They are getting it. And they are paying for it.
Q: Let's turn back to your career, and the way you use the camera. You've said the camera is not important when it comes to taking a picture. What do you mean?
A: The camera is the least important element in our work. Photography is dependent on the eye, the mind, the heart and the soul of the photographer. Many times, even architects aren't aware of the presence of their structures, and they will ask, "How did you get this picture?"
In 1937, the architect Stile Clements, one of the old-timers, had done the Coulters Department Store on Wilshire (razed in 1980). The building faced north. He called me--it was late in June--and asked me to photograph it. But he said there was a problem: Because it faced north, he thought I wouldn't get any sunlight on the face of the building. I didn't say anything other than that I could photograph it.
Well, being a good Boy Scout, I knew that the sun rises in the summertime in the northeast and sets in the northwest. Architects often don't know these things. And so I went down early one Sunday morning--I do most of my public buildings on Sunday when there is less traffic, especially in those days. I set up my camera across the street, the sun was beaming across the north face of the building, and I made an 8x10 photograph. I gave it to Clements the next week and he said, "How did you do this, I thought the sun didn't hit the north side of the building?" And I said, "Oh, it was easy Mr. Clements, I just turned the building to face the sun."
The point is that I have always tried to be conscious of the site, the direction of the sun--by the minute. I learned to look at a building and know exactly what time of day to photograph, to best reflect and define the quality of the architecture. It has nothing to do with snapping a shutter. My photography is based on the quality of my vision, my feeling for nature, the site and location of a building and what was around the building.
Q: You almost always include people in your photographs, something fairly unique to you in architectural photography. Why people in a picture of a building?
A: For scale, and also to create a feeling of occupancy. When I photograph, for instance, a university building, I will round up some young people and put them in places where they fill in voids in the space. Without the people, you would get a flat, vacant, austere photograph. Sometimes, I will tell people, "OK, that's it, we're all through"--and just as they start to move and walk away, that's when I actually take the picture.
Q: Your photograph of the Pierre Koenig house is, to me, an almost perfect expression of the optimism of the 1950s--the house cantilevered over the city below, and the two women so breezy and sleek and sophisticated. Did you know how dramatic this photograph would be when you took it then?
A: Well, people just love to see that picture. It represents a quality of architecture and photography that is not very well-observed. But the ironic thing is that when I took the exposure in my 4x5 camera, I honestly didn't know what I had. I saw something--a mood and a scene. But I didn't realize I had made what would literally be one of my masterpieces.
Q: It seems silly to ask, but who are those two women?
A: Pierre Koenig, the architect, told me he wanted to bring some of his students when I photographed the house, and I told him to have them bring their girlfriends; I'll use them as models. I never imagined this picture, though--we were doing photographs of the interior of the house. Then I happened to step outside, and I saw the view, and the girls in the house, chatting. I thought, "Wow, this might make a fine picture!" So I set my camera up outside, turned the lights off in the house, and exposed the film for about seven minutes, to capture the lights of the city below. Then we set off a flash inside the house to get the girls on film, and that was it.
Q: So it's a composite--an image the human eye itself could never experience in reality?
A: Exactly. And can you believe that until I read the title of the new book about me by Joseph Rosa--"A Constructed View"--did I understand that is exactly what I was doing for these 59 years: I construct my view of a building. My wife has always said that I capture a moment which can never be reproduced. No photographer could go back to that Koenig house and reconstruct that photograph--no matter how hard he tried. It was a secret, wonderful moment in my life. It almost makes you feel religious--thank God, I'm an atheist!
You know, I've never used an exposure meter. I often use natural, reflected light. I rely on nature, and the picture comes out because I know the value and quality of the film I'm using. I feel blessed that I've been ordained, if you will, to do this kind of photography and not only make a success out of it, but to create a success for the architects as well.*
July 16, 1949
April 15, 1952
March 2, 1958
Charles Hillinger and photographer Bruce Cox try to raft the Los Angeles River.
May 2, 1960
Feb. 25, 1970
Feb. 4, 1985
By Charles Hillinger
Times Staff Writer
Although the city stockyards are merely a shadow of what they used to be, Omaha remains the capital of America's meat industry.
Sales are made in the alleyways and in the 2,000 pens at the Omaha stockyards, or in auction arenas where auctioneers with rapid-fire, sing-song chants cry out the bids received for livestock.
As sales take place, eight U.S. Department of Agriculture market reporters jot down prices paid for cattle, hogs and sheep. Average daily prices are computed and sent over the wires to newspapers and radio and television stations throughout the nation as a daily barometer of the U.S. livestock market.
Even though the stockyards are a hectic place, the activity is substantially less than it used to be. During the 1940s and 1950s, it wasn't unusual for the Omaha stockyards to have as many as 45,000 head of cattle, hogs and sheep in its pens on any given day. Today, 10,000 head is considered a peak day.
Despite massive changes in U.S. meatpacking, however, the industry still looks to Omaha to set the pattern for meat prices from Los Angeles to Bangor, Me.
"The Omaha livestock market has the dominant position in the whole scheme of things," explained Virgil Mulligan, 50, a USDA market reporter here.
Until the mid-1950s, 95% of all livestock in the country was shipped to central stockyards, such as those in Omaha, for sale to packing houses. But then, many packing plants moved out of urban areas, and the meatpackers began buying directly from farmers and ranchers and from feedlots, which proliferated in the Midwest and Southwest. Only about 16% of U.S. livestock is sold at stockyards today.
"During the past 30 years the whole industry has gone through a dramatic change," said James L. Smith, 55, president of the Omaha Livestock Market.
But despite all the changes, the stockyards that have survived continue to serve a vital function in the industry.
"Farmers still need a central market where they can sell all kinds of livestock," said By Phillips, 56, spokesman for the Omaha stockyards. "A stockyard provides a great service to surrounding livestock producers because it offers buying power for a wide variety of livestock, not always easily sold in other places."
And because Omaha is by far the biggest livestock market, it influences the industry from coast to coast. Cattle, hogs and sheep are shipped to the Omaha stockyards by truck from as far away as Montana, Utah, Arizona and Colorado. And the value of livestock sold at the Omaha market last year totaled $550 million-making the stockyards No. 1 in the nation in gross value paid to livestock producers.
In addition, Omaha is the country's largest beef slaughtering center. Eight meatpacking plants located within two miles of the stockyards accounted for more than $1 billion in sales last year.
Omaha meatpackers slaughter an average of 7,500 head of cattle a day, livestock bought at the Omaha stockyards and directly from farmers, ranchers and feedlot operators throughout the country. (Omaha is strictly a beef packers' town, however. Hogs and sheep sold at the Omaha stockyards are slaughtered at packing plants elsewhere.)
New York-based United Stockyards Corp. owns and operates the stockyards in Omaha and 10 other cities, thus handling 30% of all livestock marketed through central public stockyards in the United States. Its other major stockyards include Sioux City, Indianapolis, Stockton, Calif., and Portland, Ore.
Raymond French, president and chairman of United Stockyards, said the value of livestock sales through the company's 11 stockyards during 1984 was about $2.1 billion.
"A stockyard company is like the New York Stock Exchange. It merely represents the place where the buyer meets the seller," Phillips explained. "The company owns the real estate and facilities-pens, alleys, scales, loading and unloading docks, feed, water. In essence, it operates a livestock hotel. The employees move livestock in and out of the yards, move animals to and from pens and scales, operate auction arenas."
At the Omaha stockyards, 24 independent firms handle the sale of livestock for farmers and ranchers, selling the livestock for a commission to buyers who represent packing companies, individuals, traders or farmers purchasing feeder livestock to sell later.
Towering over the 124-acre Omaha stockyards is the 11-story Livestock Exchange building, considered the nerve center of America's livestock industry.
Within the huge H-shaped structure are offices for commission firms, commodity futures trading companies, livestock trucking firms, livestock transit insurance companies, feedlot firms, livestock traders and the Department of Agriculture.
The building also contains attorney offices, farm supply company headquarters, two banks, a printing company, a post office, the Nebraska Department of Veterinary Inspection Service, meeting rooms and a large dance hall.
And nearby are some of the finest steak houses in America.
March 15, 1985
By Charles Hillinger
Times Staff Writer
Remember when coffee was a nickel a cup?
That was a long time ago-when candy bars, cigars and five-stick packs of chewing gum also cost 5 cents.
Coffee is still a nickel a cup at Josie's Cafe in Heimdal, a tiny town on the North Dakota prairie at the end of a seldom-traveled narrow country road, with a population of 40 people, two dogs and 25 cats.
Josie Georgeson, 75, a loquacious widow, has owned and operated Josie's Cafe on her front porch since 1954.
Never Raised Price
She has never upped the price of coffee. It was a nickel a cup the day she opened her cafe 31 years ago and it is still a nickel a cup today.
"I'm not goin' broke. As long as I come out even on it I'll never raise the price," she said.
Breakfast at Josie's Cafe is a cup of coffee and a homemade carmel roll or coffee cake. She charges 15 cents for the roll and 15 cents for a piece of her coffee cake.
"Josie ought to go to work for Reagan and get the deficit straightened out," mused Norman Heintz, 55, while munching on a carmel roll.
"Something's wrong when she can sell coffee for a nickel and he pays $500 for a hammer."
Lunch at the cafe is 95 cents-homemade soup, sandwich and coffee.
"At night I just cook for myself. Everybody in town eats supper at home," she explained.
Her customers are local farmers who come from miles around and section crews from the Burlington-Northern Railroad.
"This is a gathering place. Everybody can find out what everybody else is doing," said Georgeson between pours of hot java.
The people of Heimdal don't have a newspaper. They don't need one with Josie's Cafe.
There is one child in Heimdal, Kristy Duffey, 10, a fourth-grader who goes to Fessenden School, 10 miles down the road. The rest of the townspeople average 70 in age.
Georgeson is mayor, police chief, fire chief, the whole works in the tiny town. Except postmaster.
The post office is next door. "Is the postmaster in here all the time for coffee?" the friendly front-porch cafe owner is asked.
"He has never been in the cafe," Georgeson replied.
Art Lindgren, 75, has been Heimdal's postmaster for 36 years. "Do you ever go over to Josie's place?" he is asked.
"Never. I'm too busy. I don't get around much," Lindgren said as he excused himself to return to his work in the post office in the living room of his house.
Sept. 2, 1991
By Charles Hillinger
Times Staff Writer
There have been several famous walls in history: the Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, the Wailing Wall.
Now comes the $360,000 K-Rat Wall in Riverside. It gets its name from the Stephens' kangaroo rat-a nocturnal, burrow-dwelling, chipmunk-like rodent that propels itself kangaroo-style on powerful hind legs.
Those powerful legs have gotten the species into powerful trouble. The rats have been wandering onto land belonging to the Metropolitan Water District's Mills filtration plant-much to the dismay of MWD officials. Because the rat is endangered, the district could face heavy fines if it even inadvertently harms any.
"That's the problem," said George Buchanan, 44, area superintendent for MWD at the plant near Lake Skinner. "We're in the throes of a $140-million expansion project here, new pipelines, large landfills, treatment plants. We have a lot of heavy equipment working on the site.
"If one of our employees kills an endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat it could mean as much as a year in jail and a $50,000 fine. That's a lot of money, and no one wants to go to jail."
Hence, the MWD is building the wall to keep the rats out. Nearing completion, it is 4,500 feet long, 10 inches wide and about two feet high.
The water district plans to build another rat wall, 1.2 miles long, before the end of the year at its Lake Skinner water treatment facility 35 miles south of Riverside.
That 2-foot-high, 2 1/2-foot-deep wall was to cost $450,000, but MWD is redesigning it, hoping to reduce the price to $200,000.
After the walls are completed, the rats will be trapped and moved over the walls and off the MWD properties.
About 25 different species of kangaroo rats live in the deserts of the southwest.
The Stephens' kangaroo rat is found in western Riverside County and in a few small pockets of southern San Bernardino County and northern San Diego County. But urban development is bringing about its rapid decline.
Michael O'Farrell, 47, a wildlife biologist and one of the few experts on the rodent, estimates that there may be 20,000 to 30,000 of the rats left. They were declared an endangered species in October, 1988.
O'Farrell's biological consulting firm, based in Las Vegas, has been working under a $500,000 contract to determine whether the rats can be safely trapped and moved to new locations. Since November he has captured about 150 Stephens' kangaroo rats. All the animals, the scientist reports, appear to be have survived in good health. They are scheduled to be released soon.
Dec. 2, 1991
By Charles Hillinger
Times Staff Writer
"Thank God no one was hurt," said Willis Herron when he saw the jumbled mess of metal and shattered glass, the remains of his 13-story, $750,000 thermometer that crashed to the ground in a windstorm here.
When the giant thermometer swayed back and forth in gusts of 70 m.p.h. and suddenly snapped 20 feet above its base Wednesday, the hopes of this Mojave Desert town-a rest stop on the busy Los Angeles-to-Las Vegas interstate-were dashed as well.
"It was to be a memorial to Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, the inventor of the thermometer, since (the) measuring of temperatures has reached some of the greatest heights here in Baker," Herron said.
More than that, residents had expected Baker to become internationally known as "Thermometer City" with the completion of the colossal temperature gauge. It was to have been dedicated this Friday.
The 134-foot-high, three-sided, needle-like column crashed through the midsection of a gift shop under construction next to it and onto a park and an unoccupied Southern California Edison Co. maintenance truck.
"Our insurance company will cover the damage," said Dave Mead, vice president of Young Electric Sign Co. of Las Vegas, the firm erecting the structure.
Mead said his company is baffled by the collapse of the gigantic thermometer. "Our engineers are analyzing the metallurgy of the severed steel pipe to determine what caused it to fracture and fall. All calculations had been checked and double-checked. It was designed to withstand winds of much greater force.
"Our company's specialty is erecting the large spectacular signs Las Vegas is famous for-many much more complicated than this one," Mead said. "In the 70-year history of Young Electric we have never experienced a major failure like this."
Mead said all is not lost for Baker. He said his company will pick up the pieces and install a replacement thermometer in the town in the near future.
Herron, 66, and his partner, J. O. Failing, 70, were having the finishing touches put on the gigantic temperature gauge next to their Bun Boy Restaurant just off Interstate 15. The two men own the majority of the businesses in Baker, 90 miles southwest of Las Vegas.
"For 25 years I've had this dream of putting up the world's tallest thermometer," said Herron, "because people pulling off the freeway in the heat of summer are always making remarks like: `Whew! It's hotter 'n hell. How hot is it anyway?' "
Baker, population 400, is in the heart of the Southern California desert. It sizzles in summer with temperatures from 110 to 120 and higher on most days.
The town exists to serve the needs of passing motorists. Caltrans estimates that 9 million vehicles will go through Baker on Interstate 15 this year. The state agency reports that an average of 11,600 vehicles a day take the off-ramp into the town.
"People stop here to buy gas, to get a bite to eat," Failing said. "We had hoped many more would pull off the freeway to see the thermometer."
When Failing and Herron's restaurant burned down two years ago, the two men decided to build the huge thermometer next to their new $2-million eatery.
They were hoping the thermometer would be to Baker what the Eiffel Tower is to Paris, the Golden Gate Bridge is to San Francisco and the Gateway Arch is to St. Louis.
Before it slammed to the ground, the black temperature gauge had been covered with 4,943 red light bulbs, which were to represent mercury and show the temperature.
The height of the column, 134 feet, was symbolic of the highest temperature ever recorded in North America-134 degrees in 1913 in Death Valley, a few miles north of Baker.
I received word this morning that Charles E. "Chuck" Hillinger, veteran Times reporter, passed away Monday evening after a battle with cancer. I'll be posting more of his stories later today, as well as tributes to him.
His daughter Tori writes:
I have so many wonderful things to say about my father, but everyone already knows how wonderful a man he was.My dad touched so many lives, in so many places around the world! He had the biggest heart of anyone I have ever known. Heck, he would take a spider outside, before he would think of killing it. You could call him up from any place in the world, and he would be able to tell you of a great restaurant in the area or an interesting sight!I am honored to have Charles Hillinger as my father. I am also touched deeply by everyone's kind words, and funny stories about life with my dad.
Hillinger on covering the Watts riots in 1965, referring to the frequent assertion that The Times needed an African American to go into the riot area and sent Bob Richardson from the advertising department.
I tried to send along additional info about the Bob Baker (former Times editor) Watts riots reference that L.A. Times white staffers were too scared to go into riot zone and Bob Richardson came to the rescue, etc. But my stupid internet and Email hasn't been working for several days. I must get a new computer.Anyway the morning after the riot erupted I was sent to where it all started. Accompanying my story was a photo showing me interviewing a group of Black residents who were witness to the start of the riot.
Like [Eric] Malnic I worked the riot from then until it finally ended. The Times didn't seek out Richardson to have a Black go into the area. Richardson, a messenger for the ad dept. came into the city room late on the second night right from the scene where all hell had broken out to tell us he was caught in the middle of the riot.
The desk had Richardson talk to me and I wrote a story based on his eyewitness account. It was decided to make my story a first person piece with Richardson's byline. That was the first time anything from him appeared in the paper. It had nothing to do with white reporters not covering the story.
I worked with different photogs throughout the riot, Ray Graham, Dick Oliver and Bruce Cox. As Eric noted, angry mobs gave us a bad time verbally. But no one threw anything at us or our car.
One wild-eyed woman with disheveled hair ran up to us as we approached a huge fire just set--Graham and I were the only whites in the area--and grandstanding before the assembled crowd shouted, "What are you white MFs doing here?"
I told her we were from the L.A. Times, there to cover the story.
She said "You better get your MF facts right or we'll burn down the L.A. Times."
March 1, 2006, Hillinger on the death of Otis Chandler:Otis was a year younger than I am. The foreword Otis did for my book California Characters, An Array of Amazing People, published in 2000 began: "Chuck Hillinger and I are the same age. We worked together during the last half of the 20th Century at the Los Angeles Times. I was publisher. He was the paper's roving reporter. His bylines came from all over California, from every state, from exotic places all over the world during his 46 years at the Times. And I paid all his expenses, but it was worth every penny."
That was typical Otis. He was most generous in his remarks in the foreword, writing such things as "I told Chuck next to being publisher of the Los Angeles Times he had the best job in journalism." Otis was the best thing that ever happened to The Times. He knew us all on a first name basis. He made The Times one of the leading newspapers in the country.Every now and then I would get a call from Otis or a note suggesting a feature I should do. If you did a story that he particularly liked, he would drop you a note and let you know. If you won a writing prize, there would always be a congratulatory note from Otis. You could not ask for a better publisher, a better friend. I was involved with Otis on several big horn sheep stories.
One time I suggested a Mexicali story to Bill Thomas. "While you're in Mexicali look up this Mexican attorney and see what it will take to get the sheep horns Otis is trying to get across the border," said Thomas.
Otis had shot a trophy big horn sheep on a hunting trip in Baja, but the horns got caught up in red tape. Johnny Malmin and I drove to Calexico and stopped in a Mexican auto insurance place this side of the border to buy insurance for our Mexican visit. When we walked into the place, I blurted "We're from the Los AngelesTimes and before I could get the words out of my mouth that we needed insurance, the guy behind the counter said "Just a minute I've got what you want in the back room." He ducked in the back and came out with Otis' horns. It was pure fluke. We hadn't the slightest idea the horns were there.
Malmin and I drove to Bill Duflock's house in El Centro --Duflock was Mr. Imperial County to all news people. We left the horns with Bill for a few hours while we drove to Mexicali to do our story. Then I called Otis and told him what happened. He couldn't believe it. He thought it was the funniest thing he could imagine. We didn't have to bribe the Mexican attorney.
Arliene, my wife of 58 years -- still as gorgeous as ever -- was Arliene Otis before we were married. She was a distant, distant relative of Oats. She would call Otis, cousin. He would call Arliene, cousin. Arliene always insisted to Otis that the two of them looked alike. There is a resemblance.
When Otis was just starting out at The Times and worked in all the different departments, I went out with him several times on stories. That's when I first got to know him. I was at that dinner when he became publisher, and at his house when Bob Donovan was introduced to the editorial staff.His father, Norman, too became a special friend, after I did a 7-part series on the Tejon Ranch when I was in my 20s -- at Norman Chandler's bidding. I never did learn why he selected me to do the series.
Taylor Trumbo called me to the city desk one day and said Norman Chandler wants to see you in his office. "How would he even know who I am," I said in disbelief. Trumbo had to tell me where his office was. Anyway I went to Norman's office and he said he wanted me to do a story about the ranch. I asked him what kind of a story and he said you will know how to handle it. I returned to the City Room and Trumbo said "What was that all about?" When I told him, Trumbo sighed: "Jesus Christ."
The series started out with a picture page on Sunday and a picture page on Monday. Malmin was the photographer. Ollie French ran the art department. Young Otis was in the city room and Ollie called him over to see the layout for the story that was to begin the coming Sunday. Otis was stunned and came over to my desk and asked how I happened to be doing a series on Tejon Ranch. I told him it was his father's idea. He walked away from my desk shaking his head in disbelief.From then on until he died, every time I happened to run into Norman Chandler he would always stop and ask how I was doing and mention a story or two I did that he liked. When Norman died I wrote Otis a long letter about my relationship with his father and Otis wrote me a long letter in reply.
I have several letters Otis wrote me over the years. He was just such a special person in my life. Those luncheons the OFSs had with him in Oxnard after visiting his museum and special events over the years when he was honored were terrific. As news people we were lucky, indeed, to have Otis Chandler as our publisher.
Cliff Dektar, former Mirror reporter, says:
I recall first meeting Chuck when I was working the night radio car for The Mirror. He was a young reporter who was covering the city as I was.
He became national features correspondent and, this is true, did not apply for a Police Press credential, because he was not covering local stories .
Some years ago there was a major ship explosion in San Pedro. Chuck, who lived nearby in the Palos Verdes area, heard the blast, and raced down to the nearby docks.
He was there before the police had set up a perimeter and then the police started to clear the area and he was stopped and told to leave. He showed his Times ID, but police said he had to go...no credential
He admitted that he was "upset." And he got into a verbal boxing match. Finally, the police turned him over to their captain who asked him to sit--not cuffed--in back of his car until the press officer the venerable Lt. Dan Cooke arrived.
Dan tried to calm Chuck down, offered him a temporary credential and told him he was free to go. Chuck, a good reporter always, was not happy with the results. I had great respect for him as a person and a reporter.
Bart Everett writes:
The ship was the Sansinena, the date Dec. 17, 1976. Liberian flag, Italian crew, Union Oil Terminal. The photo I shot--which ran on Page 1 in the early edition--still hangs in my study. While one cop was capturing Hillinger west of the harbor, an LAPD lieutenant let me in on the strength of my Times plant pass on the other side. Hillinger's wallet full of press IDs apparently lacked one from the LAPD.
Freddie Miller writes:
My favorite remembrance of Chuck Hillinger is that he came to see Otis [Chandler] after Ed Ainsworth left the scene to see if he could, in effect, have that job. Otis told him no, The Times was going in a different direction and would not have that sort of column. Chuck, in his usual affable manner, said fine and then, in my opinion, took that job and improved on it 100%
Deke Houlgate writes:
Bob Rawitch, former editor of The Times Valley Edition, says:
The most famous Chuck Hillinger story I can recall was the time he and [photographer] Ben Olender went out to the high desert on a story, and near the end of the day Olender reminded Hillinger that it was time for dinner. Hillinger acknowledged this and said they had to drive 75 miles to the nearest restaurant. They did, and when they got there Olender told the waitress that he was really thirsty, not hungry. So she took his drink order. Ben said he really was thirsting for a very dry martini, and she told him the bad news. The restaurant served no alcoholic beverages. Crestfallen, Ben accepted his fate and had dinner with Hillinger. And never forgave him.
My first recollection of Chuck was in June 1967 when I started as an intern and worked the 7 a.m. shift. He sat across the aisle from me (when we actually had aisles in the newsroom). He'd beat me in by at least 30 minutes each morning. Every morning he made a round of probably 50 calls to outlying police and sheriff's stations around Southern California and the conversation always started the same: "Hi (fill in the name) this is Chuck at the Times. Anything funny or weird going on in your town?" Most of the time he was of course told "no." But like a miner panning for gold, he'd often find a nugget and turn it into a story. And when that didn't happen, he never failed to make a friend (and contact) on the phone. The network of people he developed over the years turned into hundreds of stories when "something funny or weird" actually did happen in that town.
Over the years, because of the highly entertaining and offbeat stories he wrote, he was probably the most identifiable byline in the paper besides Jack Smith. Photographers used to love and hate going on assignments with him. Love it because the stories were almost always about interesting people or places that made for great stories. "Hate" it because they worked such long hours. It wasn't unusual for Chuck to leave with a photographer for a week and come back with more than 10 stories and a string of 15-hour days. He routinely would go to a small town for one story and come back with two more unexpected stories after talking to people.
He never wanted to be an editor. Never got involved in newsroom politics. He had an unforgettable laugh you could hear across the newsroom. He had more than 50 years with Arlene who he always said had to be a saint to put up with him. She'd just smile. When he reached the point of operating out of his home instead of the office, we still saw his stories but missed his physical presence. In his passing, we will miss him all the more, but never forget the people and places about which he wrote.
Tom Paegel, former Times night city editor, writes:
"City Desk," I would answer as usual.
"This is one of the reporters," came the booming voice, always with a hint of child-like, the wonder of it all, enthusiasm on the other end.
It was Hillinger calling from some hole in the wall like "Fork in the Road, North Dakota."
"Paege!. I knew your father [Examiner photographer Felix Paegel]. You're just a kid. What the heck are you doing there?"
"I'm one of the editors."
It was a late-night ritual whenever Chuck was out and about. He always let me know where he was, usually with Steve Fontanini, or Johnny Malmin, who both also knew my father. This was before cellphones.
"Listen, in case you hear of anything breaking around here, you can reach me at Clete's Motor Court. There's no direct line, but call this number and Tillie will patch you through." He would be out looking for someone who hunted snapping turtles along the Turtle River around Mekinock, N.D. (Sioux word of Turtle).
Those of us who worked nights would often sit around and talk about the pros who had survived the war and gone on to do great things for our readers.
About this time, someone, or something, was going around the west mutilating cows' posterior regions. I remember they sent Bella Stumbo out to do a piece on it. [Eric] Malnic and I, and the others like Dick "Freight Train" Main, Ted "Craze" Thackrey, and Dick "The Pugilist" West (whatever happened to him?) would muse about the possibility of getting a late night phone call from Hillinger ensconced in a hole in the wall motel somewhere near a remote canyon in New Mexico, saying, of course with great glee and boundless enthusiasm: "I just found this guy who has the world's largest collection of cows' ---holes! Got a rewrite man?"
Too many of us are leaving, like [Times photographer Jack] Gaunt who used to bring Chuck's stories into the paper back when there were "copy books." The memories are great.
Those days, and those great ones, are gone and, sadly, our beloved way of life is also withering away. Chuck Hillinger definitely was a reporter, damn proud of it, and he was one heck of a friend and mentor.
Karen Parker, former Times copy editor, says:
Barry Zwick, former Times makeup editor, says:
I owe my Times employment to Chuck Hillinger.
I first met him in 1975 when I was free-lancing and happened to sit next to him on a flight to Yuma (he got off in El Centro).
We chatted about my copy-editor background, and he gave me his card. Two years later, I sent him my resume and asked if he would please steer it to the right people. I really didn't expect him to remember me, but it was worth a shot.
The Times called me in in mid-1978. Chuck had given the resume to Metro copy desk, who gave it to National, and I was hired by the National copy desk.
When I asked if I could take him and his wife to dinner as an expression of gratitude, he declined and said: "I've always wanted to do something like that for somebody. I'm glad it worked."
I was lucky enough to know Chuck quite well and got a movie tip from him just six months ago, at an Old Farts Society lunch, for "The Darjeeling Express."
He was always positive and cheerful and never took himself too seriously. "Feel free to rearrange this stuff," he said once when handing me a long, rambling account of the life of an old prospector to edit when I ran the Los Angeles Times/Washington Post News Service during the early 1970s. Chuck loved to roam the West even toward the end. He always looked great. He had a ramrod-upright, military bearing.I sat next to him at Ted Weegar's funeral in 1986. Chuck was full of jokes and sly, irreverent asides. At Weegar's funeral at the First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Ted's own minister, Don Moomaw of the Bel-Air Presbyterian Church, officiated. Moomaw announced early in the service that the organ music we were hearing, "That Old Rugged Cross," was Ted's favorite hymn."Ted had a favorite hymn?" Chuck asked. "Newspapermen have favorite hymns? This is not the kind of announcement they're going to make at MY funeral."
Without exception, my memories of him, in the newsroom, on the tennis court, at countless social gatherings, evoke indelible moments of mirth and warm fellowship. For friends and the newspaper, he was a treasure.
Whatever weird overseas place I, as the foreign editor, might ask Chuck to go on assignment, not only was he willing, he would be on the next plane. He would hit the ground running and never stop. He elevated inquisitiveness to a fine art.
On a round of Pacific islands, he discovered and wrote about peoples and places no one had even heard of! Expecting five or six articles, it was amazing to see the results of a Hillinger trip--an inundation of dozens of articles.
As one whose personal cheer and bright articles brought smiles to the multitudes, and whose compassion and decency set new standards, Chuck was universally loved. He was a perfect colleague and a wonderful, family-loving gentleman.
Bennett J. Mintz writes:
I had been on a winery tour/steelhead fishing trek about 30 years ago when I chanced upon a little town named Booneville in Mendocino County. What distinguished it was that on long winter nights they had developed their own “language” called Boont. It was essentially based on residents’ names and their hobbies or proclivities, so that if a guy named Clark loved golf, the sport became known in Boont as playing clark or going clarking.
I bought a booklet explaining Boont in a local coffee shop – zeese is coffee, but don’t ask me why – and after reading my fill, thought that Hillinger might like it and passed it on to him. Sure enough, about two weeks later he did one of his most memorable stories about Booneville, Boont, zeese and all the rest. It was hilarious. Somebody from the Johnny Carson Show obviously saw it, and damn if a month or so later the mayor of Booneville didn’t turn up on the Tonight Show to explain Boont to Carson. Funnier than funny!
For the next 25 or 30 years – literally to his death – whenever I ran into Hillinger at the old Press Club, OFS meetings, retirements, funerals or other functions, he never failed to thank me for tipping him to the Boonville story. He was a class act to the very end of his days.
Carole Hill writes:
In 1992 my husband, Gladwin Hill, woke from a long, cancer-induced coma and came home for his last few days. He seemed not aware of much, except that he was comfortable and happy -- a condition morphine manages very handily.
Among his first visitors were Chuck Hillinger and Jack Taylor. I don't know how he did it, but Glad recognized them and greeted them with, "Hey, fellas -- help me get to the can!" That visit progressed the way that all meetings of theirs and their many news cohorts always did.....it swerved without a pause between gossipy insight, laser wit and outright buffoonery. Though they left in tears, for that short visit illness was irrelevant.With the passing of Chuck, the three of them (and so many others) are no longer with us. But I know that somewhere the First Amendment is being defended, a piece of dubious reporting is being skewered, and a pratfall is being recorded for all time.
Chuck Garrity, former Times assistant sports editor, says:
I'll miss my golfing partner of the past five years more than I can tell you. Chuck was a wonderful man and just full of life all the time.
I worked at the L.A. Times from 1966 until 1981 and would only see Chuck from time to time because I worked the sports desk at night and he worked during the day. We always were friendly, but Chuck was friendly with everybody.
From the 1980s until 2000, I worked at the NFL and lost track of almost everybody at The Times. I started going to the OFS luncheon at Chuck's behest and would see him regularly. Then came golf each week and he and I would share the same cart in a group of old guys that Chuck had played with for years. I was the youngest at 74 when we started playing together. So, Chuck started calling me "the kid."
The last time we talked, he was planning a golf outing. I don't care how old he was, life is too shortHe was fun to be around always and I will miss him.
Jerry Clark, chairman of the Old Farts (Times retirees) says:
I had dinner a few weeks ago with Chuck, Stan Chambers and a few other L.A. journalism old-timers. Although he had lost a few pounds, we had no inkling that his condition would go downhill so fast. He was the same Hillinger that night, interviewing the rest of us about how we met our spouses, etc. A reporter to the end.
When I was beginning my newspaper career at the old Los Angeles Mirror, I would often run into Chuck Hillinger covering the same story (often L.A. Police Chief Bill Parker) for The Times. Chuck was all shoulders and elbows as he pressed forward to make sure he got his questions heard and he got the quotes correct (Parker was quick to call your editor if you misquoted him). He was a formidable colleague from whom I learned a lot about covering stories under the pressure of deadlines.
Al Martinez, Times columnist, writes:
I'll always remember his laugh, his electric blue blazer...and the inherent sweetness of the man.