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Category: military

Christian J. Lambertsen, who developed early scuba system, dies at 93

Christian J. Lambertsen, a scientist and doctor who invented an underwater breathing system used by the military in World War II and later coined the "scuba" acronym by which such systems are widely known, has died. He was 93.

He died Feb. 11 at his home in Newtown Square, Pa., outside Philadelphia, Stuard Funeral Directors Inc. said Monday.

Lambertsen, born May 15, 1917, earned a bachelor's degree from Rutgers University. He began working on his breathing apparatus, using parts of anesthesia machines, even before he enrolled as a medical student at the University of Pennsylvania, according to medical school dean Arthur Rubenstein, who called him "one of our institution's most honored professors."

Lambertsen's background as a doctor, inventor and diver made him "the right man in the right place at the right time" for the development of an early version of the device later known as scuba or "self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, according to a July biography in "The Year In Special Operations."

In 1941, Lambertsen worked with the Army's Office of Strategic Services to establish special underwater forces deployed in Burma, and later worked with the Navy to train surface frogmen to become divers. During this service, Rubenstein said, Lambertsen made the first exit from and reentry into a submerged submarine, marking the beginning of modern underwater demolition teams.

Back at the University of Pennsylvania, he converted an abandoned altitude chamber into a laboratory for the study of undersea and aerospace environmental physiology. In 1968, he established the Institute for Environmental Medicine, which has studied oxygen toxicity, diving-related diseases and the effects of hypoxic response in humans, exploring how humans can live in hostile environments from the oceans to space and in extreme temperatures.

Lambertsen retired as institute director in 1987 but continued his research as a professor emeritus, studying how high-pressure oxygen therapy can help in treatment of diseases. In 1992, he patented inergen, a fire-suppression product now used in commercial buildings but developed initially to extinguish fires in submarines and spacecraft, according to the Philadelphia Inquirer.

Among his many honors are the highest civilian awards from the Department of Defense and Coast Guard. In 2000, Navy SEALS proclaimed him "the father of U.S. combat swimming."

Lambertsen is survived by sons Christian, David, Richard, Bradley and six grandchildren.

-- Associated Press

Ed Mauser of ‘Band of Brothers’ dies at 94

Ed Mauser, a member of the "Band of Brothers" who fought in some of World War II's fiercest European battles, shunned the limelight and kept his service with the Army unit a secret, even from some of his family members.

His role came to light only after his brother-in-law got him a copy of the HBO miniseries "Band of Brothers," said Terry Zahn, who met Mauser during a 2009 Honor Flight trip to Washington, D.C., to see the World War II memorial.

Mauser told his family that some details in the miniseries, such as the locations of buildings, weren't quite what he remembered from being there in person.

Mauser died Friday in Omaha. He was 94 and had been fighting pancreatic cancer, said Zahn, president of the Midwest chapter of the 101st Airborne Division Assn. Mauser had been the oldest living member of Easy Company.

Born Dec. 18, 1916, in LaSalle, Ill., Mauser was drafted in 1942 and volunteered for the 101st Airborne Division.

He was assigned to Company E, 506th Regiment -- Easy Company -- which participated in the D-day invasion of France and the follow-up Operation Market Garden. The 101st also helped defend Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge.

Historian Stephen Ambrose interviewed Easy Company leader Dick Winters for the 1992 book "Band of Brothers," upon which the HBO miniseries was based. Winters died earlier this month at age 92. The miniseries followed Easy Company from its training in Georgia to the war's end in 1945. 

Mauser was not among the soldiers portrayed in the miniseries.

Zahn said Mauser kept his service a secret, even from his relatives. After it became known, he reunited with some of his Army buddies and made a few public appearances. He preferred to stay out of the limelight.

"Don't call me a hero," Mauser told the Lincoln Journal Star in 2009. "I was just one of the boys. I did what I was told and let's leave it at that."

-- Associated Press

Ed Chlapowski, whose radio message alerted the world to Pearl Harbor attack, dies at 88

Ed Chlapowski, the man who notified the world that Pearl Harbor was being bombed by the Japanese, has died. He was 88.

The former Navy radio man's family said he died Sunday at his home in Billings, Mont., a few weeks after being diagnosed with cancer.

In 2009, Chlapowski recounted the Dec. 7, 1941, attack on Hawaii that propelled the United States into World War II.

He said he had worked an early watch at the submarine base on Oahu, had breakfast and had just sat down on his bunk when he looked out the window and saw a hangar roof blown away. Then he saw the Japanese planes.

Chlapowski says he ran to the radio room. A supervisor handed him a message, and in Morse code, he sent out word that Pearl Harbor was under attack.

-- Associated Press

Liu Huaqing, Chinese naval commander, dies at 95

Liu Liu Huaqing, the father of the modern Chinese navy, died Friday of an undisclosed illness at age 95, state broadcaster CCTV said from Beijing. No other details were given.

Liu commanded the People's Liberation Army Navy from 1982 to 1988 and is credited with revitalizing a coastal patrol force and setting it on course to becoming a powerful navy.

As commander, he laid out a strategy of building an offshore navy capacity by 2000 and a true blue-water navy able to operate far from home ports by 2050. That included the concept of a first, second and third line of island chains through which the navy would gradually expand operations eastward into the Pacific toward Taiwan, the Philippines, Guam and eventually Australia.

Accomplishing that goal requires the addition of modern submarines, surface ships and naval aircraft, and the Chinese navy has received lavish budget increases each year to acquire new equipment. China now has the largest navy in Asia, although it remains far behind the U.S. Navy in most respects.

Liu joined the Communist Party in 1935 and served with the People's Liberation Army throughout the struggle against Japan and Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. Following the Communist victory in 1949, he was sent to the then-Soviet Union for schooling before being assigned to command units in the fledgling navy.

In his later years, he rose to the position of vice chairman of the party and served on its Politburo Standing Committee, the apex of Chinese political power.

"Comrade Liu Huaqing was an excellent party member, a faithful Communist fighter, outstanding proletarian, politician, soldier, and outstanding leader of the state and party," CCTV said in its official obituary broadcast on the evening national news.

Liu lived through many of the seminal events of the party's history, including the 1934-35 Long March that saved the party from annihilation by Chiang's troops and the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution that saw many party elders persecuted by radical Red Guard.

Liu remained active through the mid-1990s and appeared in uniform at 2007 commemorations of the 80th anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army, held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.

-- Associated Press

Photo: Liu Huaqing in 1996. Credit: Associated Press

Dick Winters of 'Band of Brothers' fame dies at 92

Winters Richard "Dick" Winters, the Easy Company commander whose World War II exploits were made famous by the book and television miniseries "Band of Brothers," died last week in central Pennsylvania. He was 92.

Winters died after a several-year battle with Parkinson's disease, longtime family friend William Jackson said Monday.

An intensely private and humble man, Winters had asked that news of his death be withheld until after his funeral, Jackson said. Winters lived in Hershey, Pa., but died in suburban Palmyra.

The men Winters led expressed their admiration for their company commander after learning of his death.

William Guarnere, 88, said what he remembers about Winters was "great leadership."

"When he said 'Let's go,' he was right in the front," Guarnere, who was called "Wild Bill" by his comrades, said Sunday night from his South Philadelphia home. "He was never in the back. A leader personified."

Another member of the unit living in Philadelphia, Edward Heffron, 87, said thinking about Winters brought a tear to his eye.

"He was one hell of a guy, one of the greatest soldiers I was ever under," said Heffron, who had the nickname "Babe" in the company. "He was a wonderful officer, a wonderful leader. He had what you needed, guts and brains. He took care of his men, that's very important."

Winters was born Jan. 21, 1918, and studied economics at Franklin & Marshall College before enlisting, according to a biography on the Penn State website.

Winters became the leader of Company E, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on D-Day, after the death of the company commander during the invasion of Normandy.

During that invasion, Winters led 13 of his men in destroying an enemy battery and obtained a detailed map of German defenses along Utah Beach. In September 1944, he led 20 men in a successful attack on a German force of 200 soldiers. Occupying the Bastogne area of Belgium at the time of the Battle of the Bulge, he and his men held their place until the Third Army broke through enemy lines, and Winters shortly afterward was promoted to major.

After returning home, Winters married his wife, Ethel, in May 1948, and trained infantry and Army Ranger units at Fort Dix during the Korean War. He started a company selling livestock feed to farmers, and he and his family eventually settled in a farmhouse in Hershey, where he retired.

Historian Stephen Ambrose interviewed Winters for the 1992 book "Band of Brothers," upon which the HBO miniseries that started airing in September 2001 was based. Winters himself published a memoir in 2006 called "Beyond Band of Brothers."

-- Associated Press

Photo: Maj. Richard "Dick" Winters in 1945. Credit: Associated Press / Courtesy of retired Sgt. Maj. Herman W. Clemens

 

Barry Zorthian, Vietnam War press officer, dies at 90

Barry Zorthian, a colorful U.S. diplomat who left his mark on American policy in Vietnam as a forthright and often combative press spokesman in the early years of the war, has died. He was 90.

Zorthian died Thursday in a Washington, D.C., hospital where he had been admitted a few days earlier, his son Greg said. A staph infection was the immediate cause of death.

By his own reckoning, Zorthian was the last surviving member of the original cadre of U.S. diplomats and military leaders whose policy decisions shaped events in America's longest war.

Zorthian was dispatched to Saigon in 1964 by President Lyndon Johnson to defuse an increasingly acrimonious relationship between American officials and news correspondents covering the war. He used a mixture of charm, sly wit and uncommonly straight talk in trying to establish credibility for the U.S. effort.

In the first American war without formal censorship, Zorthian had no way to prevent unauthorized disclosures or stifle criticism, but he refused to be intimidated by either officials or the news media.

"He talked back," said George McArthur, who covered the Vietnam war for the Los AngelesTimes and the Associated Press.

Zorthian's candor earned him grudging admiration and respect among the journalists who were his primary adversaries. While coming to trust his word, some also found him a tough competitor at the poker table.

"Barry's door was always open and although he never shared a classified thought, he left you feeling that he had," said former New York Times and CBS reporter Bernard Kalb. "Even when he told you nothing, he was always persuasive."

Many ex-Vietnam correspondents who dealt with him say Zorthian, more than any other government spokesman of recent memory, understood and valued the role of the press in a free society.

"In postwar years, Barry Zorthian remained steadfast to his conviction about the significant role the media must play in a democratic society," said Peter Arnett, a Pulitzer Prize-winning war reporter for the AP in Vietnam and later a CNN foreign correspondent. "His patience was tested in Vietnam, but he understood the principled motivations of the journalists working in Vietnam."

Arnett recalled that when he complained about an American military policeman threatening to shoot him during a 1965 Buddhist street demonstration in Saigon, "Zorthian shook his head in mock concern, and said ‘Damn it, Peter, you threatened him and he was just responding.’ ‘What?' I replied. ‘Yes,' Barry said, ‘you were aiming your pencil at him and that's more dangerous around here than a .45.' ''

Zorthian remained proud of his most controversial achievement — creating the daily Saigon press briefings that became known as the "Five O'Clock Follies," where officials delivered battlefield summaries and answered questions from reporters.

Though they sometimes became shouting matches and were widely ridiculed, the briefings lasted a decade, the only regular forum in which U.S. and South Vietnamese officials spoke entirely on the record and were often challenged or contradicted by reporters, sometimes to their embarrassment.

"I can never recall him misleading me, even though he straddled a fine line of loyalty to the government and the public's right to know, which he strongly believed in," said George Esper, a former AP Saigon bureau chief now teaching journalism at West Virginia University. "He was always accessible and always knew what he was talking about."

Zorthian was born of Armenian parents in Kutahya, Turkey, in 1920. The family immigrated to the U.S. and New Haven, Conn., where Barry attended Yale University, edited the Yale Daily News and was a member of Skull and Bones.

He graduated in 1941 and served as a Marine Corps artillery officer in the Pacific war and retired to the USMC Reserves as a colonel.

After a postwar stint at CBS Radio, Zorthian spent 13 years with the Voice of America, reporting on the Korean War and rising to program director. He then did tours as a foreign service officer in India and Vietnam.

In 1964, he was chosen by then U.S. Information Agency director Edward R. Murrow to run the Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office, which dealt with the news media. After a year, he was given the diplomatic rank of minister.

In that capacity Zorthian served as press media adviser to three successive U.S. ambassadors to South Vietnam — Henry Cabot Lodge, Maxwell Taylor and Ellsworth Bunker — and to Gen. William C. Westmoreland, the U.S. military commander there.

From 1968 on, Zorthian worked in the private sector, including 12 years as president of Time Life Broadcast and Cable and then as its vice president for government affairs in Washington.

Most recently, he worked in media affairs for Alcalde & Faye, a media consulting firm based in Arlington, Va.

In addition to his Yale degree, Zorthian had a law degree from New York University.

Zorthian's wife of 62 years, Margaret Aylaian Zorthian, died in July. He is survived by two sons, Greg and Steve, a daughter-in-law and two grandchildren.

-- Associated Press

Fred Hargesheimer, World War II pilot who gave back to Pacific islander rescuers, dies at 94

Fred Hargesheimer, a World War II Army pilot whose rescue by Pacific islanders led to a life of giving back as a builder of schools and teacher of children, died Thursday morning in Lincoln, Neb. He was 94.

Richard Hargesheimer said his father had been suffering from poor health.

On June 5, 1943, Hargesheimer, a P-38 pilot with the 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, was shot down by a Japanese fighter while on a mission over the Japanese-held island of New Britain in the southwest Pacific. He parachuted into the trackless jungle, where he barely survived for 31 days until found by local hunters.

They took him to their coastal village and for seven months hid him from Japanese patrols, fed him and nursed him back to health from two illnesses. In February 1944, with the help of Australian commandos working behind Japanese lines, he was picked up by a U.S. submarine off a New Britain beach.

After returning to the U.S. following the war, Hargesheimer, a native of Rochester, Minn., got married and began a sales career with a Minnesota forerunner of computer maker Sperry Rand, his lifelong employer. But he said he couldn't forget the Nakanai people, who he considered his saviors.

The more he thought about it, he later said, "the more I realized what a debt I had to try to repay."

After revisiting the village of Ea Ea in 1960, he came home, raised $15,000 over three years, "most of it $5 and $10 gifts," and then returned with 17-year-old son Richard in 1963 to contract for the building of the villagers' first school.

In the decades to come, Hargesheimer's U.S. fundraising and determination built a clinic, another school and libraries in Ea Ea, renamed Nantabu, and surrounding villages.

In 1970, their three children grown, Hargesheimer and his wife, Dorothy, moved to New Britain, today an out-island of the nation of Papua New Guinea, and taught the village children themselves for four years. The Nantabu school's experimental plot of oil palm even helped create a local economy, a large plantation with jobs for impoverished villagers.

On his last visit, in 2006, Hargesheimer was helicoptered into the jungle and carried in a chair by Nakanai men to view the newly found wreckage of his World War II plane. Six years earlier, on another visit, he was proclaimed "Suara Auru," "Chief Warrior" of the Nakanai.

"The people were very happy. They'll always remember what Mr. Fred Hargesheimer has done for our people," said Ismael Saua, 69, a former teacher at the Nantabu school.

"These people were responsible for saving my life," Hargesheimer told the Associated Press in a 2008 interview. "How could I ever repay it?"

Besides Richard, of Lincoln, Hargesheimeris survived by another son, Eric, of White Bear Lake, Minn., and a daughter, Carol, of Woodbury, Minn.; a sister, Mary Louise Gibson of Grass Valley, Calif.; and eight grandchildren and 10 great-grandchildren.

-- Associated Press

One year ago: Lewis Millett

Millett

Retired Army Col. Lewis Millett, a veteran of three wars and a Medal of Honor recipient, loved his country and was eager to fight. So eager, in fact, that in 1941 he deserted the U.S. Army and joined the Canadians when the United States delayed joining World War II. He died one year ago today.

"I must be the only Regular Army colonel who has ever been court-martialed and convicted of desertion," Millett told historynet.com, speaking about the minor punishment and subsequent promotions he received after he rejoined the Army and his brief desertion was investigated.

The Army's quick forgiveness paid off. Millett went on to fight in Korea, where he led a bayonet charge up a ridge known as Hill 180 that earned him the Medal of Honor.

The charge, in which he personally stabbed two enemy soldiers, was called by historian S.L.A. Marshall "the most complete bayonet charge by American troops since Cold Harbor," an 1864 Civil War battle.

In his 31-year career, which also included service in Vietnam, Millett was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star, two Legions of Merit, three Bronze Stars, four Purple Hearts and three Air Medals in addition to his Medal of Honor.

"The man was born 170 years probably too late for his liking; there is zero question in my mind he would have been one of the original Sons of Liberty," said Mike Goldware, who was chairman of the committee that built the National Medal of Honor Memorial at Riverside National Cemetery in 1999.

For more, read Lewis Millett's obituary by The Times.

-- Michael Farr

Photo: Lewis Millett at Wheeler Army Air Field in Hawaii during a 50th anniversary ceremony commemorating the end of World War II.

Credit: Associated Press

North Korean military official Jo Myong-Rok dies at 82

Top North Korean military official Jo Myong-Rok, a longtime confidant of leader Kim Jong Il who traveled to Washington in 2000 on a then-unprecedented goodwill mission, has died. He was 82.

Jo, who was vice marshal of the Korean People's Army and held the No. 2 post on the powerful National Defense Commission behind Kim, died Saturday of heart disease, the official Korean Central News Agency reported from Pyongyang.

Jo, a Korean War veteran, paid a rare visit to Washington in October 2000 as Kim's special envoy, meeting during that trip with then-President Clinton. He also pledged to then-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright that North Korea would take steps to fundamentally improve relations in the interests of peace and security.

Jo was the highest-level North Korean official to visit Washington, and his trip -- followed by Albright's landmark visit to Pyongyang -- was part of North Korea's efforts to keep up the momentum generated by a breakthrough summit between Kim and late South Korean President Kim Dae-jung held earlier that year.

Jo was born into a peasant's family in Yonsa County in North Hamgyong province, the news agency said. He served as a pilot during the war, which North Korea refers to as the "Fatherland Liberation War," and later rose to the position of chief of staff and commander of the air force of the Korean People's Army, state media said.

Jo's body will lie in state at Pyongyang's Central Hall of Workers to receive mourners before a state funeral Wednesday. Kim and his son and heir apparent Kim Jong Un are among members of the funeral committee.

-- Associated Press

 

One year ago: Harriet Allen

Harriet-allen

Desert-loving Californians have a hero in Harriet Allen, an environmentalist who mentored generations of desert activists and played a key role in the 1994 passage of the landmark California Desert Protection Act. She died one year ago at age 95.

The Desert Protection Act, signed by President Clinton, made 8 million acres of Southern California desert land off-limits to developers and designated Death Valley and Joshua Tree national monuments as national parks.

Her dedication to protecting the desert was such that Allen once took options on land that could specifically help save the bighorn sheep in a state park area, according to park rangers.

"She waged a decades-long battle to educate everyone that the desert matters," said Elden Hughes, a longtime desert-protection activist. "The fact that the desert has sustained itself as well as it has is a tribute to Harriet Allen. She deserves a big chunk of the credit."

Allen was active in the Sierra Club, joining in the 1930s and serving as chair of its San Diego chapter in 1963. She also was appointed by California Gov. Jerry Brown to the state's Coastal Commission.

When her two younger brothers joined the Navy during World War II, Allen decided to join the WAVES, a division of the Navy made up of women.

For more on the desert protector, read Harriet Allen's obituary by The Times.

-- Michael Farr

Photo: Harriet Allen with her two younger brothers. All three served in the Navy during World War II. Credit: Handout

 

One year ago: Paul Fay

Paul-fay

Paul Fay was a longtime friend of President Kennedy who wrote about their relationship in his 1966 book "The Pleasure of His Company" and served as undersecretary of the Navy in Kennedy's administration. Fay died one year ago.

Fay met the future president in 1942 in Rhode Island. Their first meeting, in a story befitting the Kennedy legend, was during a touch football game that Kennedy joined in progress. Fay was there for torpedo-boat training and Kennedy was his instructor.

Both served in World War II, and both survived confrontations with the Japanese. Kennedy's boat was struck in the darkness by a Japanese destroyer and sank, and Fay's boat was struck by a torpedo. Fay later received a Bronze Star. The two men became close while rooming together after the incidents.

In his book, Fay disclosed previously unknown details of the Kennedy's life, including the president's exasperation during the botched Bay of Pigs landing in 1961 and his mixed thoughts on getting married.

Fay's father, Paul B. Fay Sr., was president of Fay Improvement Co., which built roads and sewers throughout San Francisco. Fay returned to San Francisco after leaving government in 1965, taking over the business and eventually turning it into a consulting firm.

For more on President Kennedy's close friend and the secrets he revealed, read Paul Fay's obituary by The Times.

-- Michael Farr

Photo: Paul Fay spends Easter 1963 with President Kennedy in Palm Beach, Fla.

Micky Burn, World War II commando and writer, dies at 97

Micky Burn, a British journalist, novelist and World War II commando who flirted with fascism, embraced communism and helped save the life of Audrey Hepburn, has died. He was 97.

Burn died Sept. 3 at his home near Porthmadog in northern Wales after suffering a stroke, his friend James Dorrian said Monday.

Capt. Michael Burn took part in one of the war's most daring raids, an amphibious assault on the French port of St. Nazaire, code-named Operation Chariot, in March 1942. The plan was for commandos to ram a destroyer into the dock and then blow the ship up, while troops stormed ashore to destroy German installations.

The raid was a success and a great morale booster for Britain, but losses were heavy -- of the 28 men under Burn's command, 14 were killed. Burn was wounded but fought on until he was captured by German troops. Newsreel footage showed him flashing the “V for victory” sign as he was led away. After the war, he was awarded the Military Cross for his actions during the raid.

Burn was especially proud of his role fighting Nazi Germany because as a youth -- and, he later said, “to my eternal shame” -- he had flirted with fascism.

Visiting Germany as a young journalist in the mid-1930s, he met Hitler through his friend Unity Mitford, the Nazi-sympathizing daughter of an aristocratic English clan, and attended a Nazi rally at Nuremberg. He later recalled with embarrassment how he had greeted Hitler with a Nazi salute and told him, in German, that he was very popular among English youth. Hitler gave him a signed copy of “Mein Kampf.”

“He was extremely ashamed of his own role and the degree to which he had been taken in,” said Dorrian, who is completing a documentary film about Burn's life. “He thought Hitler was doing a good job getting rid of unemployment in Germany and giving, in his own words, Germany back its soul.”

Burn was born into privilege in 1912, the son of a royal official, and educated at private Winchester College. He won a scholarship to Oxford University but dropped out after a year to travel around Europe -- staying with assorted high-society figures including Alice Keppel, former mistress of King Edward VII -- before becoming a journalist.

Strikingly good-looking, he attracted both male and female admirers. His lovers in the 1930s included Guy Burgess, a left-wing British intelligence officer later revealed as a Soviet spy.

“Guy was the catalyst, the man who drew him away from fascism toward communism,” Dorrian said.
“We suspect Micky was being groomed by him” as a Russian agent, Dorrian said. “I think the war intervened just in time.”

Increasingly aware of the dark side of Nazism, Burn enlisted in the army reserve in 1937 while working as a journalist for the Times newspaper, and after war broke out in 1939, he joined a commando unit.

After his capture at St. Nazaire, Burn was sent to the prisoner-of-war camp at Colditz Castle in Germany, where he was one of a small team operating a secret radio. Burns would listen to BBC news reports, taking down he details in shorthand, then brief the other prisoners.

While in captivity, he also studied for an Oxford degree and wrote a novel, published in 1946 as “Yes, Farewell.”

“It was a pivotal moment in his life,” Dorrian said. “Before that it was all castles and villas and posh people. Then he was sent to Colditz and had time to reflect.”

At Colditz, Burn received a Red Cross parcel after an acquaintance, Ella van Heemstra, recognized him from newsreel footage of his capture. After his release, Burn returned the favor by sending food parcels to Van Heemstra in Holland, where she and her daughter, Audrey Hepburn, were malnourished, reduced like many Dutch people to making flour from tulip bulbs. He also sent cigarettes, which Van Heemstra sold on the black market for penicillin to treat the seriously ill Hepburn.

After the war, Burn reported for the Times from Eastern Europe before moving to Wales, where he put his socialist principles into practice by running a mussel-farming cooperative -- it was a financial disaster -- and wrote novels, nonfiction books, poetry and an autobiography, “Turned Toward the Sun.”

Dorrian said that Burn rejected orthodox communism but kept his left-wing views to the end. Of all his achievements, he was proudest of his poetry.

In 1947, Burn married Mary Booker, who died in 1974.

-- Associated Press

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